This commentary on the stanzas that deal with the exchange of love between the soul and Christ, its
Bridegroom, explains certain matters about prayer and its effects. It was written at the request of Mother
Ana de Jesús, prioress of the discalced Carmelite nuns of St. Joseph's in Granada, in the year 1584.
1. These stanzas, Reverend Mother, were obviously composed with a certain burning love of God. The
wisdom and charity of God is so vast, as the Book of Wisdom states, that it reaches from end to end [Wis.
8:1], and the soul informed and moved by it bears in some way this very abundance and impulsiveness in
her words. As a result, I do not plan to expound these stanzas in all the breadth and fullness that the fruitful
spirit of love conveys to them. It would be foolish to think that expressions of love arising from mystical
understanding, like these stanzas, are fully explainable. The Spirit of the Lord, who abides in us and aids
our weakness, as St. Paul says [Rom. 8:26], pleads for us with unspeakable groanings in order to manifest
what we can neither fully understand nor comprehend.
Who can describe in writing the understanding he gives to loving souls in whom he dwells? And who can
express with words the experience he imparts to them? Who, finally, can explain the desires he gives them?
Certainly, no one can! Not even they who receive these communications. As a result these persons let
something of their experience overflow in figures, comparisons and similitudes, and from the abundance of
their spirit pour out secrets and mysteries rather than rational explanations.
If these similitudes are not read with the simplicity of the spirit of knowledge and love they contain, they will
seem to be absurdities rather than reasonable utterances, as will those comparisons of the divine Song of
Solomon and other books of Sacred Scripture where the Holy Spirit, unable to express the fullness of his
meaning in ordinary words, utters mysteries in strange figures and likenesses. The saintly doctors, no matter
how much they have said or will say, can never furnish an exhaustive explanation of these figures and
comparisons, since the abundant meanings of the Holy Spirit cannot be caught in words. Thus the
explanation of these expressions usually contains less than what they embody in themselves.
2. Since these stanzas, then, were composed in a love flowing from abundant mystical understanding, I
cannot explain them adequately, nor is it my intention to do so. I only wish to shed some general light on
them, since Your Reverence has desired this of me. I believe such an explanation will be more suitable. It is
better to explain the utterances of love in their broadest sense so that each one may derive profit from them
according to the mode and capacity of one's own spirit, rather than narrow them down to a meaning
unadaptable to every palate. As a result, though we give some explanation of these stanzas, there is no
reason to be bound to this explanation. For mystical wisdom, which comes through love and is the subject
of these stanzas, need not be understood distinctly in order to cause love and affection in the soul, for it is
given according to the mode of faith through which we love God without understanding him.
3. I will then be very brief, although I do intend to give a lengthier explanation when necessary and the
occasion arises for a discussion of some matters concerning prayer and its effects. Since these stanzas
refer to many of the effects of prayer, I ought to treat of at least some of these effects.
Yet, passing over the more common effects, I will briefly deal with the more extraordinary ones that take
place in those who with God's help have passed beyond the state of beginners. I do this for two reasons:
first, because there are many writings for beginners; second, because I am addressing Your Reverence, at
your request. And our Lord has favored you and led you beyond the state of beginners into the depths of his
I hope that, although some scholastic theology is used here in reference to the soul's interior converse with
God, it will not prove vain to speak in such a manner to the pure of spirit. Even though Your Reverence
lacks training in scholastic theology, through which the divine truths are understood, you are not wanting in
mystical theology, which is known through love and by which these truths are not only known but at the
same time enjoyed.
4. And that my explanations - which I desire to submit to anyone with better judgment than mine and
entirely to Holy Mother the Church - may be worthy of belief, I do not intend to affirm anything of myself or
trust in any of my own experiences or in those of other spiritual persons whom I have known or heard of.
Although I plan to make use of these experiences, I want to explain and confirm at least the more difficult
matters through passages from Sacred Scripture. In using these passages, I will quote the words in Latin,2
and then interpret them in regard to the matter being discussed.
I will now record the stanzas in full and then in due order quote each one separately before its explanation;
similarly, I will quote each verse before commenting on it.
THE END OF THE PROLOGUE